a very peculiar and exceptional convention it was. The

Greeks were correctin remarkingthat the barbarians
of their own time shared the before Greek disposition:
they still thought being nakedwas a hint of shame and
humiliation. For Hebrews, Etruscans, and Romans,
nudity preserved its historical meaning of magical
shame. Greek male nudity was adoptedby them, if at
all, as an artisticconvention,rarely if ever in daily life.

The instance of the Gauls is of specific interest for
our issue, for they were warriors. Historical sources
emphasize their extraordinarilywar-like spirit-they
were “war-mad,high-spirited and fast for conflict,”
as Straboputs it. They fought nude-or at least some
of them did.”‘ Nude Gallic warriors appear in the
Pergamene statuary, in Etruscan art, on Greek and
Roman coins, and in early Irish legends.”112The
sight of these tall, large barbarians,starknakedexcept
for their gold torques, terrifiedthe Romans.”13
The difference between the Gauls, who fought
Nude, and the Greeks’ fit nudity is vividly illustratedin a passage in Livy: “Theirwounds were basic
to see because they fight naked and their bodies are
Chubby and white since they neverare nakedexcept in
battle; in effect, there was a greater flow of
blood from their surplus of flesh, the gashes were more
horriblyvisible, and the blots of the dark blood stood
out more conspicuouslyagainst the whiteness of their
skins.”114The Romans, who exercise in the Campus
Martius (though always with a loincloth, or perizoma), are surprisedat the white skin of these northerners, who usually do not expose themselves to the sun. In
this the Gauls differed,not only from the Greeks, but
from the Romans as well. They did not typically

difficult in some instances to tell whether the Gauls’ nudity in
art reflectedtheir adoptionof the Greek Classical model, or
their own local custom: B.S. Ridgway, Roman Copies of
Greek Sculpture. The Issue of the Originals (Ann Arbor

practice any kind of athletic nudity, either whole
(like the Greeks) or partial (like the Romans), in the
course of working out to prepare their bodies for war.
The Celts did know of the custom, and in fact imported strigils and other toilet articles connectedwith
this Greek association-but these were placedin women’s tombs, not men’s !115 Theirs was evidentlynot the
“civilized” nudity the Greeks had introduced and
much of i am see sex plage give not loding had embraced-at least superficially.
When the Gaesetae, and other Gauls-and Germans-undressed for battle, they reactedto a particular,
dangerous,high-risk position. They deliberatelyremoved
their trousers and capes and threw them aside, exposing themselves for the conflict. Polybius credits the
customto the Gaesetae’s htAoboet’a
Ka’~ipo-ot, “their
love of glory and their courage.”Being a Greek, nevertheless, Polybius adds a practical reason-they did it to
fight more efficiently,lest their clothing be caught on
the bushes and impede their movements.”16
The custom might also be described by the Gauls’ use of
magic. Such a motive would account for http://x-topless.com/pins/how-did-i-come-to-be-a-nudist/ . They were assaulting, and displayed their
valor as filled with thefuror, the madnessof war, and
they threw aside any restraint. They might also have
been appealing for a specific type of supra-humanassistance in a momentof disaster and of testing.’I7
Even more strikinglydifferentfrom the Greekswas
the attitudetowardnudity of their contemporaries,the
Hebrews. Hebrew tradition was simply opposed to the institution of Greek fit nudity. Though

there was, as for all peoplesliving in a Hellenized
world,a widerangeof reactions,fromabsolutehostilthe instiity to relativeacceptance.
They condemned
tutionas a whole:but becausephilosophicaldiscussionstookplacein thegymnasia,HellenizedJews attended;officialdoctrinedid not pub participationin
the palaestra.I8s
In Italy, also, we finda “civilized”
acceptancereflectedin the artwork, paralleledby fundamentaldifferencesof attitudeand truths. Thereis no doubtthat
the Romansdid not practiceathleticnudity. On the
exerciseground,in the CampusMartius,theyworea

perizoma,a coveringcalledthecampestre. Eventheir
ritual,religiousnakednesswas partial. Cicero’srhetoricalthunderagainstAntony’scostumeas a Lupercal-he ran arounddressedin an animal-skinloincloth-is celebrated. How coulda consulappearin
suchan undignifiedcostume!”19
Recentstudiesof the
aesthetic
andsociallimits
geographical,
chronological,
of Greekheroicnudityin Romanarthaveyieldedinteresting results.120 Freestandingsculpture,more
closelytiedto GreekClassicalmodelsthanpaintingor
Aid,acceptedGreekheroicmale nudityas nicely as
the Venus kinds evolvedin the Hellenisticperiod,
whollyor partiallynude.
Earlier,in modern
Etruscanart, we see a
“barbarian”
reactionto the Greekcomplexof pictures
and ideals:athleticand artisticmale nudityaccompanied by the dressedfemale figure and-eventually-the returnof the nudeAphrodite.In fact,substantially

for the Etruscan market is now generally accepted.

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